With more than 10,000 years of history, Peru boasts a great wealth of multicultural and traditions; has a delicious and laureate gastronomy; possesses imposing archaeological complexes; 12 Unesco world heritage sites and vast natural reserves. Undoubtedly, it is one of the most varied countries in the world.
Peru is located in the western part of South America. Its territory borders Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia and Chile. It sits on 1,285,215 km2 of land and 200 nautical miles from the Pacific Ocean, as well as 60 million hectares in Antarctica. It is estimated that it has a population that exceeds 31.5 million inhabitants.
It is the third largest country in South America and one of the 20 largest in the world – its area encompasses more than the territories of Spain and France combined. Being an advisory party to the Antarctic Treaty, it has a scientific station called ‘Machu Picchu’ on this continent.
The country is divided into 25 regions or departments, including the constitutional province of El Callao, where the main port of Peru is located. The capital is Lima, a city founded in 1535 by the Spaniards, becoming the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru. After the independence of 1821, it became the capital of the republic.
Peru is a megadiverse country. It has 11 ecoregions and 84 life zones out of the 117 that exist in the world. It has an enormous multiplicity of landscapes due to its geographical conditions, which in turn gives it a great diversity of natural resources. In its territory can be identified three great regions, which has been the traditional way of dividing it according to its altitudes: Coast, Sierra and Selva.
La Selva occupies 59% of the territory of this country and concentrates to 12% of the population of the country. The Sierra, dominated by the Andes mountain range, occupies 30% of the territory and is home to 36% of the population. The Coast concentrates the majority of the population – the 52% – in spite of occupying 11% of the national territory.
Spanish is the official language of Peru and is spoken by 84% of the population. In addition, 47 native languages are spoken in the country, including Quechua and Aymara, spoken by 13% and 1.7% of the population, respectively.
In July of 2016 assumed a new government, headed by the president Pedro Pablo Kuczynski of the Peruvian party by the Kambio. This was the fourth democratically elected government after the transitional government of the year 2000, which called for general elections for the following year, which shows the political stability of this country
The confluence of creeds, customs and experiences have created in the life of the Peruvians about 3,000 popular festivals a year, among employers, processions, carnivals and rituals, expression of faith in a God, respect for nature and the celebration of freedom. The feasts in Peru have a mystical aspect, most manifest the fusion of Catholicism with the pre-Hispanic traditions of each region. Payment to the land is part of the main celebrations in all regions, under the concept of repaying the Pachamama (Mother Earth) for their eternal generosity.
Music and Dance:
Music and dance have always played an important role in Peruvian society since pre-Columbian times. The ancient Peruvians used sea snails, reeds and even animal bones to make sounds. It is said that the Peruvians of the Nasca culture were the most important pre-Columbian musicians of the continent. Antaras or zampoñas, terracotta trumpets, pututos, were part of the most important musical instruments of ancient Peru. The musical pieces had religious, warrior or profane character.
Also as a product of its multiple cultures, Peru today has a rich and varied folklore, diversity of musical expressions and dances, that combine the indigenous genres and the spirit with the Hispanic influence, as well as modern styles that have adapted to the cadence and taste of the majority social groups.
The official language is Spanish and Quechua and Aymara are also co-official, living with dozens of vernacular languages in rural areas of the country (Amazon region).
The currency of Peru is the new sun (PEN)
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In Peru, partly due to the large influx of tourists, the commercial and meal times are quite wide. The shops, for example, open until almost 8 pm. Banks and official agencies, however, have more concentrated schedules in the mornings.
Mostly Catholic, approximately 85%, but with a strong presence of evangelicals, above 12%.
Cuzco or Cusco (in the Peruvian form of denomination) is a department of Peru located in the southeastern part of the country. It occupies a territory of more than 71,900.