Manu National Park
It is located in the provinces of Paucartambo in Cusco and Manú in Madre de Dios. Its extension is of 1716295.22 hectares. Manu is the most extensive reserve in the planet. Its establishment seeks to protect the biological diversity, as well as the landscapes of the lower jungle, the jungle and the Andes of southeastern Peru. Likewise, it seeks to promote tourism based on ecologically and culturally compatible criteria.
On the other hand, it also seeks to promote and facilitate research, education and recreation, as well as contributing to the preservation of the natural heritage. Its presence contributes to the recognition and protection of cultural diversity, as well as to the self-determination of the indigenous peoples of the area.
The Manu National Park protects one of the most important areas of the planet in terms of the megadiversity of biological species. Its great extension crosses frigid punas – that surpass the 4,000 m.s.n.m-; wild wooded mountains that give rise to a multitude of small ravines and valleys; cloudy forests of high forest and finally the Amazon plain. This magnificent and unique scenario includes a large and complex hydrographic system and guarantees the presence of a diversity of ecosystems little intervened by the man.
In such circumstances, the biological diversity of the Manu Reserve manifests itself in all its potential in a unique landscape on the planet. The tropical forests of the Manu have allowed ecological and evolutionary processes to be carried out almost without the presence of man; however, there is also a great cultural richness in the area, represented by the present indigenous populations in different levels of contact with the outside, and an archaeological heritage not yet revealed in all its magnitude.
Since 1977 Manu National Park was declared a Biosphere Reserve, which was granted by UNESCO. In its borders is the Territorial Reserve of the Kugapakori and Nahua ethnic groups, the Megantoni National Sanctuary and the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve. In turn, in 1987 was declared Natural Heritage of Humanity.
Much of the Manu National Park is indigenous territory. The communities of the Yora, Mashko-Piro, Matsiguenka, Harakmbut, Wachipaeri and Yine ancestrally inhabit the forests and rivers of these jungles. The native communities of Tayakome and Yomibato are recognized within the area. Both are located in the upper Manu River. In the southwest sector there is a farmers’ association known as Callanga. In addition, in the northwest sector adjacent to the PNM (and in the interior) there is an undetermined number of indigenous populations in voluntary isolation.
FLORA AND FAUNA
The PNM is home to a large number of wildlife species. About 160 species of mammals, more than 1,000 species of birds (mostly resident), about 140 species of amphibians, 50 species of snakes, 40 of lizards, 6 of turtles, 3 of alligators and 210 of fish .
Among the large mammals are the otorongo (Panthera onca), the black tiger (Felis yagouaroundi), the sachavaca (Tapirus terrestris), the huangana (Tayassu pecari), the sajino (Tayassu tajacu), the deer (Ocelotus virginianus), the river wolf (Pteronura brasiliensis), the roco (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), the monkey preserve (Alouatta seniculus), the black maquisapa (Ateles paniscus), the white monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha) Cebus albifrons) and the black macaque monkey (Cebus apella).
On the other hand, the number of insects in the PNM is very high. It is estimated that there are about 30 million species. At the same time more than 1,300 species of butterflies have been registered, 136 of dragonflies, at least 300 of ants (in a single tree were found more than 40 species) and more than 650 of beetles.
In terms of flora, the number of plant species is very high. The various records indicate that there are at least 162 families, 1,191 genera and 4,385 species identified. In a single hectare, up to 250 varieties of trees were found. The aguajales forests are one of the most outstanding ecosystems, where the palms of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa) and huasaí (Euterpe precatoria) are the dominant ones. They are developed on areas almost permanently flooded, especially in the right margin of the river Manu.
The presence of cedre (Cedrela sp.), Skeptic (Cecropia sp.), Screw (Cedrelinga catenaeformis), chestnut (Bertholletia excelsa), lupuna (Chorisia sp.) And jebe (Hevea brasiliensis) .
of the PNM are highly variable. The climate is generally very rainy and precipitation varies by altitude. In the south (which is the highest) is recorded from 1,500 to 2,000 mm annually. In the middle sector it increases from 3,000 to 3,500 mm. The highest registry is reached in the northwest sector